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    Chip of Phase Control Arrays Based on Silica on Silicon
    YAN Yue-wu, AN Jun-ming, ZHANG Jia-shun, WANG Liang-liang, LI Jian-guang, WANG Hong-jie, WU Yuan-da, YIN Xiao-jie, WANG Yue
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 423001-0423001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0423001
    Abstract420)      PDF (3473KB)(379)       Save

    A silicon-based silica optical waveguide phased array chip was designed and fabricated.The chip consisted of three parts,including a beam splitting unit,a phase modulation unit and an output waveguide array.The splitting unit was cascaded by three 1×2 optical beam splitters.The phase modulation unit adopted the method of thermo-optic modulation,and the output part comprised 8 dense array waveguides.Light output from 8 waveguides formed interference in the far field,becoming scanning beam.Passing through the thermal photo-effect of the silica after power-on,when the refractive index changed by 0.027%(0.000 4),the scanning beam changed by 5.5°.The waveguide phased array adopted 2.0% ultra-high refractive index difference silicon-based silica waveguide as material,which was fabricated by material growth and annealing by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and then etched by inductive coupled plasma dry etching technology,and finally cut and polished.The test results show that the static output of the eight output array waveguides forms a clear interference spot.When voltage is up to 130 V,the scanning beam angle changes by 5.5 °.

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    Calibration Method of Optical Transmission AR-HUD System
    AN Zhe, XU Xi-ping, YANG Jin-hua, LIU Yang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 412002-0412002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0412002
    Abstract407)      PDF (4395KB)(258)       Save

    In order to solve the calibration problem in augmented reality system,a novel optical transmission head up display system calibration method was proposed.First,the different coordinate systems are defined by analyzing the relationship among the components in system.Because of the distortion of camera and optical display system,virtual image distortion will be brought to some error.Therefore,the distortion of the camera and the optical display part is taken into account and corrected simultaneously when building the model.Finally,the non-linear regression estimation method is used to solve the model and calculate the calibration parameters.This calibration method,which combines optical display image distortion and camera imaging distortion correction,improves the calibration accuracy of optical transmission head up display system.The experimental results show that the average relative error of the calibration algorithm is less than 0.42% which basically satisfied the requirements of the system for calibration accuracy.

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    System of OLED-on-silicon Micro Display Based on Visual Perception of Human Eye
    JI Yuan, YU Yun-sen, GAO Qin, MU Ting-zhou, CHEN Wen-dong, RAN Feng
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 411001-0411001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0411001
    Abstract381)      PDF (4115KB)(205)       Save

    Aiming at the high data bandwidth problem in the virtual reality applications,this paper presents a data transmission method for the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay with the human eye visual perception characteristic.With the study on the human visual system,the foveation filtering algorithm of the texture pyramid is used to simulate the dynamic gaze effect of the human eye.The multi-resolution image fusions with the multi-level texture pyramids for the output image are realized.The hardware modules are designed using Verilog HDL language under the FPGA platform,including the video signal decoding and the 1 600×1 600 color OLED-on-silicon microdisplay driving.The experimental results show the multi-resolution image fusion compression algorithm based on the visual perception of human eye has a good data compression ratio.It can effectively decrease the transmission bandwidth for the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.The proposed method meets the visual perception of the human eye.It has good rendering quality,which meets the real-time rendering requirements of the OLED-on-silicon microdisplay in the virtual reality embedded environment.

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    Multi-fields Optimization Iterative Design Method for Freeform Surface in Ultra-short-focus Projection System
    YU Bai-hua, TIAN Zhi-hui, SU Dong-qi, GAO Song-tao, SUI Yong-xin, YANG Huai-jiang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (3): 322001-0322001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194803.0322001
    Abstract342)      PDF (4377KB)(180)       Save

    In order to solve the design problem of freeform mirror in ultra-short-focus projection system, a method of freeform surface design for large field of view imaging optical system is proposed, which is called multi-field optimization iteration method. In this method, a reflection plane is used as the design starting surface. Based on the corresponding relationship between objects and images in multi-field, and according to the normal direction vectors of the reflector, the freeform surface is obtained by weighted iterative optimization. Based on the freeform surface obtained by this method, a refractive-reflective combined ultra-short-focus projection objective is designed, which can magnify the 0.65 inch digital micromirror device chip to 100 inch projection screen at the projection distance of 230 mm. The modulation transfer function of the objective system is better than 0.4 at 0.43 lp/mm and the maximum distortion is less than 1%. This method is simple and feasible, which can provide useful reference for the design of freeform surface in large field of view imaging system.

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    Design of Optical System for Multi-band All-sky Airglow Imager
    LI Zhan-tao, FENG Yu-tao, HAN Bin, LI Yong, SUN Jian, BAI Qing-lan
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (5): 522003-0522003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194805.0522003
    Abstract335)      PDF (4056KB)(155)       Save

    In order to reduce the complexity and development cost of the multi-band all-sky imager, a multi-band all-sky imaging optical system with no focusing and high robustness is proposed. A secondary imaging system is composed of a telecentric fisheye lens and a finite conjugate distance imaging lens of the telecentric image. The shelf-level narrow-band filter is placed at the image plane, using H-FK61 and KF2 glasses achieve full system apochromatic. The design results show that the system F number is 2.8, the band range is 427.8~865 nm, the chromatic focal shift is less than 0.048 mm, and the optical transfer functions of the eight observation channels of the system are all above 0.46, which meets the application requirements. The tolerance of filter is very loose. The surface tolerance PV is less than λ/2, the refractive index tolerance is ±0.003, the thickness tolerance is ±0.05, and the shelf-level products can meet the application requirements. Compared with the traditional scheme, the system eliminates the detector focusing mechanism and does not need to use a customized narrow-band filter, which simplifies the system and reduces the cost.

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    Coupling Coefficient Control of Phase-shifted Fiber Grating
    YAO Gao-fei, HUANG Jun-bin, GU Hong-can, LIU Wen
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (5): 506003-0506003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194805.0506003
    Abstract335)      PDF (2995KB)(123)       Save

    In order to realize the π phase-shift fiber grating fabrication with different coupling coefficients by shielded method, the phase-shift principle is analyzed, and the method of controlling the coupling coefficient of π phase-shifted fiber grating by regulating the length of shielded length and the number of occurrences of π phase shift is proposed. The transmission matrix method is used to simulate the transmission spectrum change during the phase-shifted grating fabrication process. The influence of shielded length on the transmission spectrum of the phase-shifted fiber grating is analyzed under different grating fringe visibility. The phase-shifted fiber grating fabrication experiments are carried out based on different shielded length. The results show that the effective control of the phase-shift fiber grating coupling coefficient can be achieved by adjusting the shielded length and the number of phase shift cycles.

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    Large-scale Axial Length Measuring System Based on SS-OCT
    LIU Shan-shan, WANG Yi, ZHANG Wei-qian, CHEN Wen-guang, CAI Huai-yu, CHEN Xiao-dong
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (5): 512002-0512002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194805.0512002
    Abstract321)      PDF (2523KB)(109)       Save

    To solve the problem that the traditional measurement method of axial length is segmented detection and the measurement error is large, a swept-source optical coherence tomography system with large detection range and realized one-time measurement of axial length was designed. In order to reconstruct the large depth interference signal, an algorithm combining adaptive peak point extraction and adaptive error correction was proposed. The CPU-GPU acceleration technology was used to realize the real-time measurement and solve the problem of great data and slow speed of wide imaging range. Optical eye model experiments shows that the measurement error of axial length is 0.01 mm, which is superior to the traditional segment measurement system. The single measurement time is 0.10 seconds, which meets the real-time measurement requirements.

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    Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Graphene Oxide Hole Transport Layer
    WANG Yun-xiang, ZHANG Ji-hua, WU Yan-hua, WANG Hong-hang, YI Zi-chuan, ZHANG Xiao-wen, LIU Li-ming
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (3): 316001-0316001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194803.0316001
    Abstract321)      PDF (3287KB)(280)       Save

    Graphene Oxide (GO) was introduced as a hole transport layer material in a planar heterojunction perovskite battery by solution spin coating. The photoelectric conversion efficiencies of the prepared cells based on GO, GO:(PEDOT:PSS) composite film and GO/PEDOT:PSS double-layer film as hole transport layer are 1.86%, 7.35%, and 7.69%, respectively. And the efficiency of the control cell based on PEDOT:PSS as the transport layer is 7.38%. The main reason is that graphene oxide has insulation properties. When graphene oxide as the anode interface layer, the series resistance of the device increases with the thickness of the graphene oxide film increases, thereby reducing the short-circuit current and efficiency of the battery. In order to improve the conductivity of graphene oxide and its work function, the oxidation of graphene oxide was combined with PEDOT:PSS to form a two-hole transport layer. The battery achieves a high efficiency of 7.69%, which proves that this is oxidation is an effective way for graphene to be used in the hole transport layer of perovskite cells.

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    Beam Homogenization of a Fresnel Lens Array with a Randomly Distributed Phase for Laser Beams
    PEI Xian-zi, LIANG Yong-hao, WANG Fei, ZHU Xiao-li, XIE Chang-qing
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (3): 314001-0314001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194803.0314001
    Abstract318)      PDF (5231KB)(289)       Save

    To eliminate the multi-beam interference, a binary and randomly distributed phase was introduced to the Fresnel lens array and a binary phase change of 0 or π is applied to individual Fresnel lens. This change in phase disrupts the phases of the periodic beams, and therefore reduces the effect of multi-beam interference on the homogenized plane. The numerical simulation of the laser beam homogenization were carried out using the Fresnel lens with an aperture of 0.5 mm and the foci of 6 mm, and the array number of 20×20. The simulation results show that the overall uniformity of the target plane is calculated as 90% and the beams energy efficiency can be up to 96%. The designed Fresnel lens array was fabricated using microelectronic technologies. The measured uniformity of the homogenized laser beams at a wavelength of 1 064 nm was 83%, and the beams energy efficiency was 96%. Our results indicate that the introduction of the binary and randomly distributed phase to the periodic microlens array can effectively decrease the influence of interference and improve the uniformity of homogenization of single-mode Gaussian beams.

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    Infrared Target Detection Algorithm under Complex Ground Background
    NING Qiang, QIN Peng-jie, SHI Xin, LI Wen-chang, LIAO Liang, ZHU Jia-qing
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 410001-0410001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0410001
    Abstract314)      PDF (7107KB)(215)       Save

    A random sampling mean-shift clustering algorithm based on frame difference light flow was proposed.Firstly,the moving target region was extracted by frame difference method,and the moving region was calculated by optical flow,and the moving target was accurately extracted by adaptive optical flow threshold segmentation method.Then,the connected region labeling algorithm was used to preliminarily divide the moving region,and several connected domain subset eigenvector sample points were obtained.The sampling times of sample points in the subset space were determined by the random sampling strategy proposed.At last,mean shift algorithm was used to carry out several sampling calculations of sample points in each subset,and analyzed whether the clustering convergence results were the same.This strategy improves the detection speed and accuracy of the target by reducing the sampling times of all sample points of the marked results.Experimental results in different infrared test scenarios show that,compared with the traditional infrared multi-target detection algorithm,the method in this paper has good local anti-blocking,accuracy and real-time performance,and the detection rate can reach 95.27%,and the processing time per frame reaches 39.12 ms,which meets the real-time processing needs.

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    Smoothing the Edge of DMD Scanning Pattern by Free Surface Lens
    SUN Yan-jie, LIU Hua, LI Jin-huan, LU Zi-feng, ZHANG Ying, LUO Jun
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 411002-0411002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0411002
    Abstract306)      PDF (4330KB)(246)       Save

    The scanning exposure patterns by Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) array in some directions have a saw-tooth edge of one pixel,to solve this problem a free surface optical lens is designed and installed at 1 mm distance of DMD window glass.The imaging of the microscopy array has a linear dislocation which caused by free surface optical lens.When the original line width and photolithography efficiency are invariable,the edges of the exposure pattern are smoothed.The linear dislocation form is analyzed theoretically.Based on the mapping principle,the initial data of the free surface is calculated by Matlab.The model of the ideal lens shape is constructed and optimized by Zemax.And the exposure effect with and without the lens is simulated.The results show that within the tolerance range of 2 μm,the dash saw-tooth edge of the exposure pattern is reduced from 0.14 pixel to 0~0.01 pixel,the slash edge of the saw-tooth is reduced from 0.338 to 0.110~0.125 pixel,and the change of the line length and width range respectively from-0.153 to 0.05 pixel,and from-0.058 to 0.153 pixel,when the energy decreases to 0.9 times of the original after installing the lens.The deformation range of the pixels and scribe line meets the manufacture precision of PCB which is about 10~30 μm.The proposed method has the advantage of reducing exposure energy demand and light source cost.

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    Calibration Method of Micro-polarizer Array Long-wave Infrared Imaging System
    YAN Yu, XU Xiao-hong, FAN Zhi-guo, ZHANG Qiang, JIN Hai-hong
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (6): 611004-0611004.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194806.0611004
    Abstract301)      PDF (2844KB)(153)       Save

    To improve the precision of micro-polarizer array long-wave infrared imaging system, for the incident light's polarimetric information calculation problem, a polarimetric calibration method is proposed based on error analysis. By determining the relationship between the pixel level response values and the incident light power, the generalized optical transmittance is introduced to derive and achieve the calculation of the extinction ratio and polarization orientation, further obtain the values of elements in the micro-polarizer Mueller matrix independent of large scale equations. A method to compute polarimetric information in one super pixel which contains fixed position blind pixels is proposed, contribute to getting the incident light's polarimetric information precisely. The experiments show that this calibration method can effectively reduce error interference, and improve the detection accuray of micro-polarizer array long-wave infrared imaging system.

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    LIBS Autofocus Method Based on Acutance of Surface Image
    WANG Hua-dong, FU Hong-bo, JIA Jun-wei, ZHOU Qi-qi, NI Zhi-bo, DONG Feng-zhong
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (6): 630001-0630001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194806.0630001
    Abstract298)      PDF (3034KB)(138)       Save

    By using a homemade laser induced breakdown spectroscopy system integrated with a micro-imager, the influence of aperture, region of interest, reflectivity of sample on position sensitivity of image acutance was analyzed. The results show that image acutance is more sensitive to the position under larger aperture, larger aperture is more suitable for the autofocus process. The reflectivity of sample has a little influence on the position sensitivity of image acutance, and the acutance of the partial image can also be used to assist the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy focus. The surface position corresponding to the maximum acutance has good repeatability for different samples and different region of interest. On this basis, an autofocus method based on the acutance of the surface image was established.

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    Design of Two-phase Filtering Reconfigurable Optical Physical Unclonable Function
    CHEN Xin-hui, ZHANG Yue-jun, CHEN Jun-ye, MO Li-feng, CAI Pei-zhi, ZHENG Jun, HU Xin, WANG Peng-jun
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (5): 526001-0526001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194805.0526001
    Abstract297)      PDF (5047KB)(117)       Save

    A two-phase filtering reconfigurable optical physical unclonable function is proposed using the optical speckle. Firstly, the random and unclonable optical speckles are produced by random deviation of the spatial Brownian motion, optical interference and diffraction. Then, the mode selection and two-phase filtering methods are used to realize the reconfigurable function and reduce systematic error. Finally, the optical speckle image is acquired with the help of charge-coupled device system. After binarization and von Neumann processing, the binary data of the physical unclonable function is got with characteristics of randomness, robustness, and reconfigurable. 10 sample optical physical unclonable functions, which each sample can produce 512-bit binary data, are fabricated and tested. The experimental results show that the proposed physical unclonable function passes all National Institute of Standards and Technology randomness tests, the randomness of the physical unclonable function output is 99%, and the two-phase filter method reduces the system error about 3%.

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    Multi-modal Fusion Brain Tumor Detection Method Based on Deep Learning
    YAO Hong-ge, SHEN Xin-xia, LI Yu, YU Jun, LEI Song-ze
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (7): 717001-0717001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194807.0717001
    Abstract297)      PDF (5043KB)(218)       Save

    Aiming at the low accuracy of traditional brain tumor detection, a three-dimensional brain tumor detection method based on deep learning was proposed. Firstly, the magnetic resonance images of different modal brain tumors were fused to obtain the three-dimensional features of brain tumor focus under different modalities. Then, an instance normalization layer was added between the convolution layer and the pooling layer to improve the convergence speed of the network and relieve the problem of overfitting. And the loss function was improved, the weighted loss function was used to enhance the feature learning of the focus area. Finally, the problem of more focuses in the false positive brain tumor was solved combining with the post-processing method. The experimental results show that the proposed brain tumor detection method can effectively detect the tumor focuses. The Dice coefficient, sensitivity and specificity of the three evaluation indexes reach 0.926 7, 0.928 1 and 0.997 7 respectively. The three indicators improve 4.6%, 3.96% and 0.04% compared with the 2D detection network, and improve 13.2%, 10.42% and 0.12% compared with the initial single modal brain.

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    A 16×1 Pixels 180 nm CMOS SPAD-based TOF Image Sensor for LiDAR Applications
    CAO Jing, ZHANG Zhao, QI Nan, LIU Li-yuan, WU Nan-jian
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (7): 704001-0704001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194807.0704001
    Abstract281)      PDF (4881KB)(339)       Save

    A CMOS single photon avalanche diode based time-of-flight sensor is presented for light detection and ranging applications. The sensor integrates 16 structure-optimized single photon avalanche diode pixels and a dual-counter-based 13-bit time-to-digital converter. Each pixel unit has a novel active quench and recharge circuit. The dark noise of single photon avalanche diode is reduced by optimizing the guard ring of the device. The active quench and recharge circuit with a feedback loop is proposed to reduce the dead time. A dual-counter-based time-to-digital converter is designed to prevent counting errors caused by the metastability of the counter in the time-to-digital converter. The sensor is fabricated in 180 nm CMOS standard technology. The measurement results show the median dark count rate of the single photon avalanche diode is 8 kHz at 1 V excess voltage, the highest photon detection efficiency is 18% at 550 nm light wavelength. The novel active quench circuit effectively reduces the dead time down to 8 ns. The time-to-digital converter with 416 ps resolution makes the system achieve the centimeter-accuracy detection. A 320×160 depth image is captured at a distance of 0.5 m. The maximum depth measurement nonlinear error is 1.9% and the worst-case precision is 3.8%.

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    2+1 Phase-shifting Algorithm Based on Background Correction
    LI Dong-lin, CAO Yi-ping
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 415001-0415001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0415001
    Abstract280)      PDF (4022KB)(172)       Save

    Due to the gamma nonlinear effects of the projectors and cameras,the Direct Current (DC) component of the deformed fringe pattern and the intensity distribution of background image are not equal,so measurement errors are introduced.This paper introduces a background image correction method in the traditional 2+1 phase-shifting algorithm.The intensity distribution of the captured background image is used as a template,and the DC component of the deformed fringe pattern is approximated by the least squares principle,which can effectively improve the measurement accuracy.And the phase shift of the 2 phase-shifting sinusoidal gratings is no longer fixed to be π/2 in the new 2+1 phase-shifting algorithm,the algorithm is more flexible.The experimental results verify the effectiveness and practicability of the algorithm.

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    Experimental Investigation of Median Crack in Indentation of Optical Glass under Ultrasonic Vibration
    JIANG Chen, GAO Rui, JIANG Zhen-yu, HAO yu
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (7): 722001-0722001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194807.0722001
    Abstract279)      PDF (3483KB)(174)       Save

    In order to further grasp the subsurface damage mechanism of ultrasonic vibration-assisted grinding of optical glass materials, the Vickers indentation experiment under non-ultrasonic vibration and ultrasonic vibration conditions was designed to investigate the indentation features of K9 optical glass under two conditions. The magnetic component fluid polishing was used to detect the depth of the median crack in the indentation area of K9 optical glass. The conventional model of median crack of indentation was modified twice to obtain the model of the Vickers median crack depth of the indentation under ultrasonic vibration conditions. The static and dynamic fracture toughness were calculated by experimental data of Vickers indentation under non-ultrasonic vibration and ultrasonic vibration conditions. The first correction coefficients of the two conditions were 0.08 and 0.06 respectively. Combined with the experimental results of the measured median crack depth, the values of the second correction coefficients under the two conditions were close under two conditions, which were 94.75 and 94.50 respectively. The results show that the new median crack depth model has a good recognition of ultrasonic vibration and processing conditions.

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    Optical Design of a Compound Eye Camera with a Large-field of View for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    YU Xiao-dan, ZHANG Yuan-jie, WANG Yuan-yuan, XU Huang-rong, YU Wei-xing
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (7): 722003-0722003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194807.0722003
    Abstract270)      PDF (4150KB)(220)       Save

    A large field of view Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) camera imaging system, named curved compound eye camera for the small UAV, was designed. The system consists of three subsystems, a cured microlens arrays, an optical transformation subsystem, and a data processing unit with image sensors. The designed compound camera has a focal length of 4 mm, a F number of 4, and a field of view is 106°, which makes it can resolve the ground target with a feature size of 0.5 m at an altitude of 500 m. In the design, lenslets with a doublet form were used in curved compound eye to eliminate the optical abberations. Since there is an overlap in field of view for neighboring lenslets, lenslets as much as of 7 can view the same target at the same time from different view angles, which allows the object location and speed measurement. The simulation results show that the image quality of the entire compound eye camera system meets the requirements with an acceptable tolerance, and the maximum optical distortion can be controlled under 1.2%.

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    Low-light Image Pairs Fusion Method Based on Patch-match
    WANG Guang-xia, FENG Hua-jun, XU Zhi-hai, LI Qi, CHEN Yue-ting
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (4): 410003-0410003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194804.0410003
    Abstract264)      PDF (5368KB)(211)       Save

    Aiming at the fusion problem of long-exposure image and short-exposure image under low-light condition,a patchmatch-based method is proposed to fuse low-light image pair into a better one.Firstly,a bi-directional ghost detection scheme based on pyramid multi-scale algorithm is proposed,which reduces the influence of noise and under-exposure on ghost detection,and is used to accurately detect the inconsistent region caused by the motion of the object between the image pairs.Then,the patchmatch algorithm is used to reconstruct the ghost region.And finally the Poisson fusion algorithm of improved edge characteristics is used to extract the information from the two exposures.Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively preserves sharp outlines of the short-exposed image,and maintains the color,brightness and details of the long-exposed image.

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