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    Packaging and Integration of Whispering Gallery Modes Optical Microcavity Devices(Invited Review)
    WANG Peng-fei, LI Ang-zhen
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148008-1148008.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148008
    Abstract433)      PDF (3748KB)(321)       Save

    The whispering gallery modes microcavity devices play an important role in modern optics. They have wildly applied prospect in many field such as high sensitivity sensor and low threshold laser. However, they are very susceptible to outside interference such as vibration, temperature and humidity, which is challenging to make them practical. In recent years, the whispering gallery modes microcavity devices for practical uses has caused widely concern and many related studies have been reported. In this paper, the latest research progress on packaging and integration of whispering gallery modes microcavity devices is briefly introduced.

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    Progress and Prospect of Research on Single-molecule Localization Super-resolution Microscopy(Invited Review)
    AN Sha, DAN Dan, YU Xiang-hua, PENG Tong, YAO Bao-li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (9): 918001-0918001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204909.0918001
    Abstract202)      PDF (27471KB)(309)       Save
    Super-resolution optical microscopy breaks through the diffraction limit and becomes a powerful tool for the modern biomedical research with the development of novel fluorescence probes, advanced lasers, high sensitivity photodetectors, etc. Single-molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM), as one of the super-resolution technologies, can resolve the subcellular structures in nanoscale by using the photoswitching effect of certain fluorescence probes. In this paper, the principle and implementation of SMLM are introduced, the applications in the fields of cytobiology, tissue biology and neuroscience are presented, furthermore, the development trends and the futher investigated directions of this technique are discussed, providing references for the relevant research fields. The continuous innovation of super-resolution microscopy will promote the development of life science.
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    Research on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Porous Foam Heat Sink for All Solid State Thin Disk Lasers
    LIU Rui, GONG Fa-quan, LI Xiang, DAI Long-hui, LI Gang, TAN Yong
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (4): 414002-0414002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204904.0414002
    Abstract258)      PDF (4188KB)(302)       Save
    The thermal lens effect of high-power all solid state thin disk lasers in operation can cause the laser output power to decrease and the beam quality to deteriorate. In this paper, focus on this problem, porous SiC foam and millimeter channels are introduced into the heat transfer heat sink of the thin disk laser and applied to all solid state thin disk laser. The finite element analysis software is used to optimize the structural model. And the simulation analysis indicates that, when the thickness of SiC is 2 mm, the porosity is 40% and the inlet pressure is 4 kg (0.4 MPa),the theoretical heat transfer coefficient is 1.51×105 W/m2·K, the experimental heat transfer coefficient is 1.45×105 W/m2·K, the results are similar to each other, which verifies the correctness of the theoretical model. Finally, the new heat sink is used to build a 24 multi-passes all solid state thin disk lasers experimental device based on Yb:YAG. The continuous laser output with output power of 393 W and wavelength of 1 030 nm is obtained, the optical-optical efficiency is 52% and the beam product parameter is 5.918 mm·mrad.
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    Research Progress in Development of Glass Scintillator(Invited Review)
    Lü Shi-chao, ZHOU Shi-feng, TANG Jun-zhou, LIU Pei
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148011-1148011.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148011
    Abstract493)      PDF (4469KB)(285)       Save

    As a typical material for radiation detection, glass scintillator plays an important role in various applications, including medical imaging, high-energy physics, environmental monitoring and security inspection. According to structure features and applications, glass scintillator is mainly classified into high-density glass scintillator, low-density glass scintillator and glass-ceramics scintillator. This article describes various types of glass scintillators, focusing on their fabrication procedures, microstructures, optical properties and applications. The outlook of the future developments of the glass scintillators is also discussed.

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    Sapphire Fiber and Its Application in High Temperature Sensors(Invited Review)
    PANG Fu-fei, WANG Zhi-feng, LIU Huan-huan, MA Zhang-wei, CHEN Zhen-yi, WANG Ting-yun
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148004-1148004.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148004
    Abstract784)      PDF (3332KB)(247)       Save

    Single-crystal sapphire fibers have attracted much attention in high temperature and high pressure environments due to their high melting point, good mechanical properties and stable chemical properties. The preparation method, basic characteristics and high-temperature transmission characteristics of the single-crystal sapphire fiber are introduced. Then, the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Bragg grating and Michelson interferometer based on single-crystal sapphire fiber are discussed. The working principle and implementation methods of these sensors are analyzed. At last, in view of the difficulty of compatibility between single-crystal sapphire fiber and traditional single-mode fiber, the preparation of sapphire-derived fiber and its recent development are introduced. The future development direction of sapphire fiber is also discussed.

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    Research on Line-of-sight Channel Model of Short-range LED Optical Communication
    ZHAO Tai-fei, MA Zhuang, LI Xing-shan, LIANG Hao
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 106001-0106001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0106001
    Abstract328)      PDF (4757KB)(246)       Save
    Gauss fitting function is used to determine the Gauss-like radiation pattern of LED with small divergence angle, and the line-of-sight channel model of LED is established according to the optical radiation characteristics and radiation pattern. The relationship between the received optical power and the channel parameters of various multi-band LEDs obeying the Lambertian and Gauss-like modes is actually measured. The experimental results show that the average relative error between the measured value of received optical power and the theoretical value of channel DC gain calculation is less than ±6%,which verifies the versatility and correctness of the line-of-sight channel model proposed in this paper.
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    Post Processing for Adaptive Optics Imaging Based on Multi-channel Blind Recognition
    LI Xin, WU Yang, FANG Zhou, XU Qi, YANG Hai-bo, YANG Hui-zhen
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (2): 201003-0201003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204902.0201003
    Abstract349)      PDF (4345KB)(245)       Save
    In order to restore turbulence-degraded imaging of astronomical or space targets in real time, this paper proposes the multi-channel blind recognition method, which can be applied to the dynamic changes of atmospheric turbulence. Target imaging at different time after adaptive optical correction are regarded as multiple channels to establish the point spread function of system. The super-Laplace algorithm is used to solve the target after obtaining estimations of point spread function. Results show that there exists a mutual relationship between point spread functions at different moments, which satisfies the theory of multi-channel blind recognition. The Mean Square Error(MSE) between the solved point spread function and the original point spread function is in the order of 10-30~10-27 and the MSE between the recovered target image and the original target is in the order of 10-5~10-4. Research results provide a theoretical basis for real-time restoration of turbulence-degraded images.
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    Ytterbium-doped Silica Fiber for High Power System: A Review of Research Progress and Development Trend(Invited Review)
    CHEN Gui, HOU Chao-qi, GUO Hai-tao, LI Jin-yan
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148012-1148012.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148012
    Abstract347)      PDF (2898KB)(239)       Save

    The ytterbium-doped silica fiber is one of the important basic element of fiber laser and amplifier system. The key to promote the further increase of fiber system power is the performance improvement of ytterbium-doped fibers. In this paper, the power increase and main challenge to power scaling of high power ytterbium-doped fiber laser system are reviewed, and the improvement scheme for the bottleneck problems of laser power climbing is briefly described. The research progresses in improving power restriction based on fiber fabrication technology, optical fiber material and fiber structural design are described in detail. Furthermore, the future research and development tendency of ytterbium-doped silica fiber are prospected.

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    Orientation Method of Digital Zenith Camera Based on Coordinate Transformation
    LIU Xian-yi, ZHANG Zhi-li, ZHOU Zhao-fa, CHANG Zhen-jun, DUAN Hui
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 112003-0112003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0112003
    Abstract298)      PDF (3615KB)(226)       Save
    In order to improve the efficiency of digital zenith camera, the orientation method was studied on the basis of precision position. Coordinate transformation model for identified star points was constructed. Then the coordinate transformation model was analyzed. The effects of instrument tilt and optical axis tilt on star points were analyzed respectively. Influence of focal length and astronomical coordinates of optical axis on the theoretical image coordinates of star points were also studied. Then the orientation model was established based on coordinate transformation. Analysis of experimental data shows that the orientation accuracy of single group star images is within 5″. The orientation accuracy is high, which can meet the requirements of orientation accuracy under actual conditions.
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    Research Advances of Random Fiber Lasers and Its Applications(Invited Review)
    RAO Yun-jiang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148002-1148002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148002
    Abstract1006)      PDF (9893KB)(220)       Save

    Random fiber laser is a new type of fiber lasers. Compared with conventional fiber lasers, benefiting from its modeless, better stability, higher realibility, simpler structure and many other advantages, random fiber lasers have developed quite well in recent years in realization of a number of novel light sources including high power/high efficiency, broadband, low coherence, etc, leading to many research achievements. The author of this review is the leader of the first group to carry out research on Random fiber lasers in China. The development history of random fiber lasers is firstly summarized systematically. Then, the recent advances in random fiber lasers and their applications to optical fiber sensing and communication are introduced mainly. Finally, the future developments of random fiber lasers are prospected.

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    Progress in Research and Applications of Plastic Optical Fiber(Invited Review)
    KONG De-peng, ZHANG Da-ming, YUAN Yuan, MU Qi-yuan, MEI Sen, XUE Lu, WANG Li-li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148006-1148006.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148006
    Abstract440)      PDF (3202KB)(216)       Save

    Plastic optical fibers have the characteristics of lightweight, softness, low cost and so on. It is noteworthy that plastic optical fibers and other types of fibers have complementary advantages in function, then various plastic optical fibers can be applied in communication, image transmission, illumination, and decorative respectively to realize different functions. In the field of communication, graded index plastic optical fibers have obtained the transmission rate of 10 Gbps@100m in the consumption level, and 40 Gbps in the test level. In the field of image transmission, there are image bundles with 0.45 mm diameter@7 400 pixels and 1.5 mm diameter@13 000 pixels, as well as optical fiber plate products with resolutions up to 256 lp/mm. In the field of plastic optical fiber lasers, the theoretical and experimental research on the relationship between the parameters (gain medium, fiber length, fiber structure) and the characteristics of laser/amplifier is gradually deepening. In the field of decoration and illumination, lots of devices have been developed such as solar optical plastic optical fiber illumination, modeling plastic optical fiber illumination and plastic optical fiber blanket therapeutic instrument. In this paper, the latest researches and applications of plastic optical fiber mentioned above are reviewed.

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    Study on Stability of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent OLED
    ZHANG Wen-wen, CHEN Zhuo, LI Ge, YAN Xue-wen, JIAO Bo, WU Zhao-xin
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 123001-0123001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0123001
    Abstract438)      PDF (4052KB)(203)       Save
    The Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (TADF-OLEDs) was fabricated, using bipolarmaterial 4,4'-bis (carbazol-9-yl) biphenyl (CBP) as host, green fluorescent material (4 s,6 s)-2,4,5,6-tetra (9H-carbazol-9-yl) isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) as dopant. The device structure was optimized by adjusting concentration of 4CzIPN doped into CBP, then the photoelectric properties and lifetimes of device were studied. The performance of 12% 4CzIPN-doped device is the best. To study the influence of driving mode on device lifetime of the TADF-OLEDs, the AC driving circuit of positive constant current reverse constant voltage was designed, and the parameters of the AC driving circuit were optimized and adjusted. Research shows that the TADF-OLED achieved a longer device lifetime under AC driven of frequency of 50 Hz, reverse bias of 0 mV and duty cycle of 50%. By comparing the lifetime curves of the same device driven by DC and AC, it is found that the TADF-OLED lifetime under the AC driving scheme is about 1.5 times longer than that of under the DC driving scheme.
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    Picosecond Pulsed All-fiber Yb-doped Laser with 1.2 GHz Repetition Rate
    WEI Xiao-le, WEI Huai, SHENG Quan, FU Shi-jie, SHI Wei, YAO Jian-quan
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148015-1148015.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148015
    Abstract429)      PDF (3992KB)(199)       Save

    A high repetition rate all-fiber picosecond laser which mode-lacked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. Stable mode-locked pulse train is obtained when the pump power is 112 mW in the ring cavity. The pulse width of the output laser is 4.2 ps at the repetition rate of 19.2 MHz, and it exhibits a spectral bandwidth of 3.6 nm at the center wavelength of 1 064.1 nm. Due to the length of the cavity, it is difficult to increase the repetition rate of the fiber laser. So a novel low-loss high-repetition-rate pulsed laser modulator based on optical coupler and time delay fiber is introduced to increase the repetition rate of the seed to 1.2 GHz. This design effectively reduces the energy loss of the pulse during coupling, which provides a new way to boost the repetition rate of the all-fiber ultra-short pulsed laser.

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    Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Cubic Crystal K2CsSb, K3Sb and Cs3Sb Cathode Materials
    KANG Tian-you, REN Ling, ZHANG Kai-min, JIN Mu-chun, WANG Xing-chao, SHU Zhao-xin, ZHANG Yi-jun, QIAN Yun-sheng
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 116001-0116001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0116001
    Abstract220)      PDF (3798KB)(185)       Save
    Considering the possible existence of three types of compounds, namely K3Sb, K2CsSb and Cs3Sb in the growth of K2CsSb photocathode, a first-principles study based on density functional theory was employed to establish the cubic bulk models and the (111) surface models for the three types of antimonide cathode materials. Through theoretical calculations, electronic structures and optical properties were obtained, wherein band structures, densities of states and optical properties were acquired for bulk models, and work function, optical properties and surface energy were calculated for (111) surface models. The results demonstrate that, as for the three types of antimonide cathodes, in the radiation energy range of 2.4~3.2 eV produced by interaction between neutrinos and scintillators, the absorption and relectivity of K2CsSb bulk material are close to those of Cs3Sb and K3Sb ones, whereas the values of K2CsSb (111) surface material are lower than those of Cs3Sb and K3Sb ones. In addition, K3Sb has the narrowest bandgap, maximum work function and maximum surface energy, while Cs3Sb has the minimum surface energy and its work function is close to that of K2CsSb, but its band gap is smaller than that of K2CsSb. By contrast, K2CsSb with the widest bandgap has the smaller work function and surface energy. Therefore, K2CsSb photocathode is suitable to serve as a stable and high-efficient photoemitter in the blue-violet spectral region.
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    Feature Enhancement SSD Algorithm and Its Application in Remote Sensing Images Target Detection
    SHI Wen-xu, TAN Dai-lun, BAO Sheng-li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 128002-0128002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0128002
    Abstract420)      PDF (5516KB)(183)       Save
    In order to improve the detection accuracy of multi-scale remote sensing ship targets in complex scenes, a feature enhancement single shot multi-scale detector is proposed. Firstly, the shallow feature enhancement module is designed to improve the feature extraction ability of the shallow network in the pyramid structure of Single Shot MultiBox Detector(SSD). Then the deep feature fusion module is designed to replace the deep network in the pyramid structure of SSD to improve the feature extraction ability of deep network. Finally, the image features are matched with candidate frames of different aspect ratios to adapt to remote sensing image targets of different scales. The experiments tested on the optical remote sensing image dataset demonstrate that the proposed method can adapt to target detection under different background and effectively improve the detection performance of multi-scale remote sensing targets in complex scenes. On the extended experiment, the proposed method performance over SSD in blurry target detection.
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    Parameter Compensation Algorithm of Flywheel Micro-vibration and Whole-satellite Coupling Characteristic
    HU Zi-qiang, WANG Dong, GONG Xiao-xue, TAN Lu-yang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (1): 112001-0112001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204901.0112001
    Abstract317)      PDF (8168KB)(181)       Save
    In order to improve the theoretical prediction accuracy of the image motion which is affected by coupling characteristics of the flywheel and the satellite, a numerical compensation algorithm for the stiffness and damping parameters of the on-board flywheel installation is proposed. Firstly, the mathematical model of the compensation algorithm is established. Based on the radial swaying mode of the flywheel and the linear whole-wave micro-vibration transfer function model, and by combining the measured data of disturbances of flywheel on the dedicated measuring platform with jitter-affected image motion data of flywheel installed on the satellite to construct an optimization function to compensate for the installation stiffness and damping parameters of the flywheel on the satellite. Secondly, the algorithm is used to compensate and estimate the stiffness and damping of the flywheel installation in a certain type of satellite. Finally, the theoretical prediction and comparison of the jitter-affected image motion before and after the parameter compensation are carried out. The comparison results show that the estimated image motion data after parameter compensation is closer to the measured image motion data than estimated image motion data after parameter compensation and the radial rocking mode natural frequency curve is more obvious, which proves that this parameter compensation algorithm is feasible. This study significantly reduces the analysis error caused by the inconsistent installation stiffness of the flywheel on the satellite and the installation stiffness of the test platform during the whole-wave micro-vibration analysis, and provides a new idea for solving the equivalent parameters of the coupling characteristics of the flywheel and the satellite.
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    Photonic Crystal Fiber Temperature and Pressure Sensor
    LIU Tian-mu, JIANG Yi, CUI Yang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (4): 406001-0406001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204904.0406001
    Abstract278)      PDF (3356KB)(175)       Save
    An hybride optical fiber sensor is presented for the measurement of temperature and pressure in high temperature environment. The sensor is based on the configuration of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer(EFPI),which is formed by a Hollow Core Fiber(HCF) sandwiched between a section of Single Mode Fiber(SMF) and a section of of Photonic Crystal Fiber(PCF), and an intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer(IFPI),which is formed by a section of PCF. Temperature measurement is achieved by thermal expansion effect and thermooptic effect, while pressure measurement is realized by the change of refractive index of gas. The demodulation of the sensor was realized by a self-made white light interferometry demodulator. In the environment of different temperature and pressure, the temperature and pressure optical fiber sensors whose cavity length is 306 μm and 1 535 μm were measured continuously. The experimental results show that the pressure sensitivity decreased with the increase of temperature. 1 460.5 nm/MPa is achieved at the temperature of 28 ℃ and the temperature response of the EFPI cavity is 17.4 nm/℃. The sensor is able to operate stably at temperature of 28~800 ℃ and pressure of 0~10 MPa.
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    An Improved Apparent Distance Model for Direct-viewlow-light-level Night Vision System
    JIN Wei-qi, ZHANG Qin, WANG Xia, LI Li, QIU Su
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (4): 411001-0411001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204904.0411001
    Abstract247)      PDF (3097KB)(170)       Save
    There is no difference in the evaluation of the direct-view low-light-level night vision system for the three-generation and super-second generation image intensifiers. The simulation results are not ideal under the ultra-low illumination of 10-4 lx. Therefore, three optimizations were made for the model: the transfer function of the human eye was added into the transfer function model of the system; the average photoelectron number and photoelectron contrast formula generated by the scene at the photocathode were corrected based on the spectral matching between the scene and the photocathode; the background noise term was added to the noise source. The improved apparent distance model was verified by the experimental results of the helmet system in field conditions. The results show that the improved model can effectively distinguish the difference between the recognition distances of the super-second generation and three-generation night vision systems, the calculation results are closer to the actual measurement results.
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    Crystal Fiber and Crystal-derived Fiber Preparation and Application: A Review(Invited Review)
    LIU Zhao-jun, GAO Xi-bao, CONG Zhen-hua, SHAO Xian-bin, XIE Yong-yao, JIANG Ming-yuan, WANG Shang, ZHAO Zhi-gang, ZHANG Xing-yu
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (11): 1148003-1148003.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194811.1148003
    Abstract384)      PDF (4660KB)(170)       Save

    Crystal fiber is a new type of high performance fiber material with high concentration of rare earth ions, good light transmission, high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance. It has been recognized that crystal fiber has great potential in laser and sensing applications. However, small core diameter crystal fibers with crystalline core and crystalline cladding have not been successfully fabricated. Compared with traditional glass fiber, the preparation process of crystal fiber is more complicated. How to improve and innovate the crystal fiber preparation process is an important problem that needs to be solved. In order to explore ways to improve the quality of crystal fiber, this paper takes the four preparation techniques of crystal fiber as the main line, reviews the development history of crystal fiber and its preparation method, discusses the limitations of each preparation method. The current application status of crystal fiber is summarized and its development trend is prospected.

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    Infrared and Low-light-level Visible Light Enhancement Image Fusion Method Based on Latent Low-rank Representation and Composite Filtering
    JIANG Ze-tao, JIANG Qi, HUANG Yong-song, ZHANG Shao-qin
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (4): 410001-0410001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204904.0410001
    Abstract199)      PDF (6471KB)(168)       Save
    Due to the problems of low brightness and contrast, lack of detail contour information and poor visibility in the traditional infrared and low-light visible image fusion algorithm, an infrared and low-light visible enhancement image fusion method based on potential low-rank representation and composite filtering is proposed. Firstly, the improved high-dynamic-range compression enhancement method is used to enhance the brightness of low-light visible images. Secondly, the infrared and enhanced low-light visible images are respectively decomposed by using a decomposition method based on latent low-rank representation and composite filtering, and the corresponding low-frequency and high-frequency layers are obtained. Then, the improved contrast-enhanced visual-saliency-map fusion method and improved weighted least squares optimization fusion method are used to fuse the obtained low-frequency and high-frequency layers respectively. Finally, the low-frequency and high-frequency fusion layers are linearly superposed to obtain the final fusion image. Compared with other methods, the experimental results show that the fused image obtained by the proposed method has abundant detail information, high clarity and good visibility.
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