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    Progress and Prospect of Research on Single-molecule Localization Super-resolution Microscopy(Invited Review)
    AN Sha, DAN Dan, YU Xiang-hua, PENG Tong, YAO Bao-li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (9): 918001-0918001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204909.0918001
    Abstract202)      PDF (27471KB)(309)       Save
    Super-resolution optical microscopy breaks through the diffraction limit and becomes a powerful tool for the modern biomedical research with the development of novel fluorescence probes, advanced lasers, high sensitivity photodetectors, etc. Single-molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM), as one of the super-resolution technologies, can resolve the subcellular structures in nanoscale by using the photoswitching effect of certain fluorescence probes. In this paper, the principle and implementation of SMLM are introduced, the applications in the fields of cytobiology, tissue biology and neuroscience are presented, furthermore, the development trends and the futher investigated directions of this technique are discussed, providing references for the relevant research fields. The continuous innovation of super-resolution microscopy will promote the development of life science.
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    Optical System Study and Design Used for the Ultraviolet Warning Camera with Ultra-wide Field
    WANG Hong
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2014, 43 (12): 1222004-1222004.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20144312.1222004
    Abstract660)      PDF (1166KB)(472)       Save

    In order to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system and reduce the false alarm rate, the structure type, correction of the image aberration and the image illumination uniformity were researched and analyzed. The telecentric and retrofocus structure was adopted. The system with the full field of view of 110°, the relative aperture of 1/3, and spectral range from 0.254 μm to 0.272 μm was designed. The analysis results demonstrate that the dispersion spot diameter is smaller than 53.7 μm, the relative distortion is smaller than 20% at 0.85 field of view, and the relative illumination uniformity is smaller than 15%.The structure is compact and feasible for ultraviolet warning camera.

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    SPIN OF A PHOTON AND POLARISATION STATES OF LIGHT WAVE
    Liu Li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1991, 20 (2): 135-140.  
    Abstract983)      PDF (2617KB)(2913)       Save
    The photon is a boson, so when a number of photons are in the same state, the wave functions that describe the photons in quantum physics are precisely the same as the Maxwell’s equations of macroscopic electromagnetic fields. In this paper we discuss in detail the relations between the selection rules in atomic physics and the parity conserva-tion selection rules on the one hand, and the photon spin on the other. We also explain that the positron annihilation theory and experiments have offered a proof for the correctness of the theoretical analysis of the photon spin. Moreover. we give a brief introduction to the relation between the polarization state of the light wave and the spin state of the photon from both macroscopic and microscopic aspects. We also introduce the virtual photon theo-ry, Aharonov-Bohm effect, the relations between the geometric phase on the one hand, and the photon spin and the light beam polarization on the other. Thus, we present some new points of view for the further study of the photon nature. In the References the paper"The Supersymmentry of the Photon"is listed for further study.
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    Fluorometic Determination of Ethanol Solution
    Lan Xiufeng, Liu Ying, Liu Jian′gang, Shen Zhonghua, Lu Jian, Ni Xiaowu
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2003, 32 (11): 1371-1374.  
    Abstract333)      PDF (877KB)(1784)       Save
    The visible fluorescence spectra from ethanol-water solution and its characteristics are investigated in experiment and theory. The experimental results indicate that spectral profile of ethanol has two prominent fluorescence regions from 278 nm to 493 nm and from 534 nm to 665 nm when excited by ultraviolet (UV) light (λmax =253.7 nm). The fluorescence spectra change as the concentration of solution alters. However, the change rules of solution with high concentration are different from those with low concentration. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms of fluorescence emission of ethanol-water solution induced by UV-light are analyzed based on the theory of molecule orbital structure. It is considered that this fluorescence comes from the transition from nonbonding electrons namely n electrons in the hetero atom group (C-OH) to the antibonding orbital σ*. Investigation on the fluorescence spectra and its characteristics will contribute to study of other organic macromolecule fluorescence spectra when alcohol serves as solvent.
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    Cited: Baidu(31)
    Calculating Equations for Resolution and Wavelength Range of Grating Spectrograph
    WANG Xing-quan,FENG Ke-cheng,ZHU Guo-xian,WANG Xiao-qian
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2009, 38 (5): 1167-1170.  
    Abstract1164)      PDF (1227KB)(5271)       Save

    The parameters and property of Level symmetrical Ebert-Fastie spectrograph was studied.Based on the light-path diagram of Level symmetrical Ebert-Fastie spectrograph,it was deduced for the calculating equations of included angle between incident light and diffracted light,angle of incidence,angle of diffraction,measurable spectrum grade and measurable range of wavelength,by geometry methods.Based on theoretical resolution’s calculating formulas,the equations of interaction between resolution and structure parameters was deduced in view of slit width.By deriving the equations,improving resolution’s methods were come into being.The example of calculating revolution shows that the practical revolution in view of slit width is 83% of the theoretical resolution in which slit is infinitely slender.

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    Acta Photonica Sinica    1983, 12 (4): 44-49.  
    Abstract628)      PDF (1763KB)(1854)       Save
    null
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    Study on Bessel Lens for Picosecond Laser Cutting
    Zhang-fan WEI, Chuan SUN, Kai GUO, Ming CHEN, Li-hua HUANG, Ai-jun ZENG, Hui-jie HUANG
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (10): 1022001-1022001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204910.1022001
    Abstract82)   HTML19)    PDF (3122KB)(51)       Save

    A Bessel lens for laser cutting and beam measurement system are designed and developed. Additionally, picosecond Bessel beam is generated by a picosecond pulse laser and the designed Bessel lens, and it is used for the cutting experiment on a piece of silicate glass with the thickness of 1 mm. The results show that, by the incidence of a Gaussian beam with certain diameter on the Bessel lens, the central core diameter and non-diffracting propagation distance of the generated Bessel beam are 3.4 μm and 2.46 mm, respectively. In the cutting experiment, the diameters of the surface micro-holes before glass breaking are smaller than the designed central core diameter of Bessel beam. The designed Bessel lens and beam measurement system in this paper can satisfy the application requirements of laser cutting.

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    USING χ VECTOR EXPRESS POLARIZED LIGHT AND APPLICATION
    Kong Weijin, Li Guohua
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2002, 31 (11): 1405-1408.  
    Abstract874)      PDF (1495KB)(2635)       Save
    χ vector is induced from the definition of Jones vector.By using χ vector,a new express of polarized light in two-dimension complex plane is given.Each point in this complex plane express a polarized stte.At last several conclusions connecting with the eigenstate of Jones matrix are proved.The result shows that each optical sysetm has two eigenstats,the eigenstats of the rotatory media are left and right rotatory circle polarized light,the polarizer′s are two normal line polarized lights,birefringent media′s are two line polarized lights that are parallel to the fast and slow axis respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Acta Photonica Sinica   
    Abstract1231)      PDF (481KB)(5284)       Save
    null
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    Correct the Measurement Error of Distributed Raman Optical Fiber Temperature Measurement System
    YANG Rui, LI Xiao-yan, GAO Xiang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2015, 44 (10): 1006006-1006006.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20154410.1006006
    Abstract504)      PDF (1630KB)(1860)       Save

    In the distributed Raman optical fiber temperature measurement system, Anti-Stokes light and Stokes light have different propagation speeds due to the fiber dispersion effect, this will cause mismatch of the acquisition signals, resulting in measurement error. A method was proposed to use the piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation algorithm to correct the Anti-Stokes signal, eliminating signal mismatch and reducing the system measurement error. The method is verified on our 1 km sensing prototype. Before correction, the Anti-Stokes signals have one point more than the Stokes signals, causing -7.45% error at front of the temperature peak. After interpolation correction, the signal mismatch is eliminated, resulting in the system measurement error within ±1.5%.

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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    PERFORMANCE OF A SILICON AVALANCHE DIODE AS A SINGLE PHOTON DETECTOR
    Liang Chuang, Liao Jing, Liang Bing, Wu Lingan
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2000, 29 (12): 1142-1147.  
    Abstract1082)      PDF (379KB)(4181)       Save
    Silicon avalanche photodiodes operating in the Geiger mode are capable of detecting single photon in the near infrared regime.It is designed and tested two types of quenching circuit,with a dead time of about 1μs in the passive quenching mode and 60~80ns in the active quenching mode.The output pulse width is about 20ns.The performance of the detector under various operating temperatures has been investigated down to liquid nitrogen temperatures,and a new observation is reported.
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    THE REFRACTIVE INDEX MEASUREMENT OF HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX GLASS BEADS
    Huang Fuquan, Lu Shanying, Wang Shaomin
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2001, 30 (6): 753-756.  
    Abstract913)      PDF (368KB)(1992)       Save
    A new method for measuring the refractive index of glass beads is presented.Using a laser beam incidence fulfills the condition of minimum deviation and through one or more times inner reflection,can be received the primary or higher order rainbows which relate to the refractive index of the glass beads.The method is particularly adapted to measure the refractive index within 1.7~2.4 of glass beads,and the features of this method are convenient,quick and safe.Through analyzed and compared with different experiment results,the measuring accuracy is better than 1%.
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    DISPERSION,GROUP VELOCITY AND GROUP REFRACTIVE INDEX
    Li Hui, Xie Shusen, Lu Zukang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1999, 28 (12): 1075-1079,1090.  
    Abstract628)      PDF (1415KB)(4678)       Save
    In this paper,it is pointed out that the significance of dispersion in often neglected in the measurement of refractive index by interference Emphasis is placed on an additional concept of group refractive index which is defined as the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to group velocity in medium Intensive analyses show that the physical meanings of group refractive index include both refractive index and its dispersive property Therefore,it is easy to learn why many results of group refractive indices by interferential method are mistaken to be real refractive indices To differentiate refractive index from group one is not only to correct errors in refractive index measurement but also to highlight the temporal characteristic of dispersion phenomenon in the light transport in medium To this end,a transforming relation between the group refractive index and the refractive index is presented and discussed in detail Some examples of typical solid,liquid and gas are also given.
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    THE EFFECT AND APPLICATION ON PLASMA DISPERSION OF Si
    Li Guozheng, Liu Yuliang, Liu Enke
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1996, 25 (5): 413-416.  
    Abstract855)      PDF (2353KB)(1732)       Save
    The enect on plasma dispersion of Sihas been introduced in this paper.TheJectroopticalmodulator and 2 ? 2 electrooptical switch of Si has been made by using this effect and its result issatisfactory.
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    The Application of Sol-Gel Technology in Coatings on Glass
    Acta Photonica Sinica   
    Abstract1584)      PDF (486KB)(4922)       Save
    Glass, as a kind of amorphous material, is widely used. It has been found that some important properties of glass will be efficiently improved by coating technology. The advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel coating technology have been introduced in this paper and the application area and development of sol-gel coating technology have also been reviewed. By researching on preparation and controlling of the oxide coatings such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, HfO2, Al2O3, WO3, V2O5, the author get many kinds of functional coatings with controllable optical performance. The hi-strength SiO2 antireflective coatings, which has good performance of optics and mechanics, were prepared by dip-coating method. The results show that the average transmittance of glass coated in this way has been increased by more than 6% at the wave band of 400nm~800nm. The surface of the coatings was smooth and dense. And the mechanical strength was very well. This kind of AR coatings was very useful in practice.
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    A METHOD OF WAVEFRONT DATA FITTING USING ZERNIKE POLYNOMIALS
    Hui Mei, Niu Hanben
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1999, 28 (12): 1113-1116.  
    Abstract476)      PDF (1178KB)(2090)       Save
    A method of wavefront data fitting using Zernike polynomials is presented.Generation of orthogonal polynomials on a discrete set of data points is given and procedures of computing wavefront coefficients are described.It is mainly used in the cases of low modulation,speckle,noise or dust points.Through the establishment of a certain threshold,a mask is set up on error points.The measurement accuracy is inproved further.
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    Propagation of Bessel-Gaussian Beam with Optical Vortices in Turbulent Atmosphere
    WANG Hai-yan, CHEN Chuan-lin, DU Jia-lei, BI Xiao-wen
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2013, 42 (5): 505-510.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20134205.0505
    Abstract1007)      PDF (2861KB)(1063)       Save

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral, the analytic expressions for Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs) with optical vortices propagating in turbulent atmosphere are derived. The average intensity properties and the beam quality (Power in bucket) in the far field of Bessel-Gaussian beams with optical vortices propagating in turbulent atmosphere are investigated. It is found that intensity profiles of Bessel-Gaussian beams experienced successive variations and the phase singularity rapidly fades away during propagating in turbulent atmosphere. The process is closely related with the number of topological charge, the beam's waist width and the strength of atmospheric turbulence. The maintenance of singularity of vortex beams with larger topological charge in turbulent atmosphere is better than that for vortex beams with smaller topological charge. In addition, based on the theory of power in bucket, the influence of topological charge, the beam's waist width and the strength of atmospheric turbulence on the beam quality of Bessel-Gaussian beams is explored in detail.

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    Experimental Investigation on High-order Transverse-mode of the Pr:YLF Laser by a Blue Laser-diode Off-axis Pumping
    Feng-chen ZHANG, Chen-lin HUI, Qi-he SHU, Cai-hong HUANG, Dong-mei GONG, Feng-jiang ZHUANG
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2020, 49 (10): 1014001-1014001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20204910.1014001
    Abstract60)   HTML8)    PDF (1650KB)(36)       Save

    The direct generation of the visible high-order transverse-mode laser was present by employing an off-axis pumping and cavity control in a diode end-pumped Pr:YLF laser. The detailed numerical analysis was proposed based on the intensity characteristic theory about the High-order Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam and the coherent superposition of different HG amplitudes and phases. In our setup, a blue LD was served as an end-pumped source with a pump wavelength of 442 nm, and a compact plano-concave cavity was designed for lasing. For directly obtaining hollow and high-order HG mode 720 nm laser outputs, we manipulate the resonator of the Pr:YLF laser by employing an efficient off-axis diode-pumping. The experimental results confirmed that the high-order HG beams are generally consistent with the theoretical calculations. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated an approach for generating the hollow and high-order (HG) mode 720 nm laser beams by manipulating laser modes inside the cavity. Further researches will focus on obtaining higher energy high-order transverse-mode laser outputs, and the method in this paper has potential in the fields of optical manipulation, optical micromachining, and optical communications.

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    THE NEW METHOD OF A SIMPLIFIED PROCESSES F FRESNEL FORMULA FOR THE METHOD OF CRITICAL ANGLE
    Chen Haiqing, Chang Yangyan, Ruan Yu
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1995, 24 (6): 551-555.  
    Abstract637)      PDF (2411KB)(585)       Save
    simplified processes of Fresnel formula for beani incidence angle near critical angle wasinvestigated in detail,the expression for the method of critical angle was derived,which was discussedand analyzed in this paper.
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    THE FOUR COLOR ALGORITHM ON AN ICHNOGRAPHY
    Wang Shaowen
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1995, 24 (3): 263-267.  
    Abstract364)      PDF (2469KB)(595)       Save
    This thesis establishes an four color algorithm about the ichnogrphy.
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