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    Locking of the Fringe Position and Period in Large-size Holographic Grating Exposure
    ZHANG Dong, ZHAO Cheng-qiang, XU Wen-dong, ZHANG Yi-bin, YAN Yu-qi
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2018, 47 (2): 205001-0205001.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20184702.0205001
    Abstract620)      PDF (4057KB)(2793)       Save

    The position and period of grating fringes will vary against the substrate during double beam interference exposure due to temperature variation, air flow, vibration and other factors in the fabrication of large-size holographic gratings. It will result in the decrease of grating contrast. The dynamic change of fringes was analyzed during large-size grating exposure. The Root-Mean-Square (RMS) errors of fringe translation and period in 3 hours are 1.87 and 1.20 period respectively. The corresponding simulative grating contrasts are 12.83% and 67.37% respectively. A fringe locking system composed of three monitoring subsystems, a computation and control subsystem and two piezo nanopositioners was set up. The translation and period of fringes can be locked at the same time. The groove shape and contrast of gratings are improved significantly after locking. The precision of this fringe locking system:the 3σ value of fringe translation and corresponding contrast are 0.009 period and 99.99% respectively; the RMS error of period change and corresponding contrast are 0.017 period and 99.77% respectively. This locking system satisfies the requirements of fringe stability for the exposure of large-size gratings.

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    SPIN OF A PHOTON AND POLARISATION STATES OF LIGHT WAVE
    Liu Li
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1991, 20 (2): 135-140.  
    Abstract983)      PDF (2617KB)(2913)       Save
    The photon is a boson, so when a number of photons are in the same state, the wave functions that describe the photons in quantum physics are precisely the same as the Maxwell’s equations of macroscopic electromagnetic fields. In this paper we discuss in detail the relations between the selection rules in atomic physics and the parity conserva-tion selection rules on the one hand, and the photon spin on the other. We also explain that the positron annihilation theory and experiments have offered a proof for the correctness of the theoretical analysis of the photon spin. Moreover. we give a brief introduction to the relation between the polarization state of the light wave and the spin state of the photon from both macroscopic and microscopic aspects. We also introduce the virtual photon theo-ry, Aharonov-Bohm effect, the relations between the geometric phase on the one hand, and the photon spin and the light beam polarization on the other. Thus, we present some new points of view for the further study of the photon nature. In the References the paper"The Supersymmentry of the Photon"is listed for further study.
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    Calculating Equations for Resolution and Wavelength Range of Grating Spectrograph
    WANG Xing-quan,FENG Ke-cheng,ZHU Guo-xian,WANG Xiao-qian
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2009, 38 (5): 1167-1170.  
    Abstract1164)      PDF (1227KB)(5271)       Save

    The parameters and property of Level symmetrical Ebert-Fastie spectrograph was studied.Based on the light-path diagram of Level symmetrical Ebert-Fastie spectrograph,it was deduced for the calculating equations of included angle between incident light and diffracted light,angle of incidence,angle of diffraction,measurable spectrum grade and measurable range of wavelength,by geometry methods.Based on theoretical resolution’s calculating formulas,the equations of interaction between resolution and structure parameters was deduced in view of slit width.By deriving the equations,improving resolution’s methods were come into being.The example of calculating revolution shows that the practical revolution in view of slit width is 83% of the theoretical resolution in which slit is infinitely slender.

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    Optical Fiber Vibration Measurement System with Temperature Compensation Function
    YAO Guo-zhen, LI Yong-qian, SHANG Qiu-feng, YANG Zhi
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2016, 45 (10): 1006005-1006005.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20164510.1006005
    Abstract420)      PDF (2476KB)(1530)       Save

    Aiming at the problem that the optical fiber vibration acceleration sensor is influenced by temperature and its sensitivity is low, an optical fiber vibration measurement system with temperature compensation function was designed. The ambient temperature, which is used to compensate for the vibration acceleration to reduce the effect of temperature on the vibration measurement, was measured by a fiber Bragg grating. The tunable Fabry-Perot filter was used for wavelength demodulation and also as the fiber mirror to improve the sensitivity of the sensor. The mutual influences of vibration measurement and temperature measurement were analyzed and tested, the results show that the effect of the Fabry-Perot filter scanning on vibration measurement can be eliminated by data processing and the influence of vibration on temperature measurement is small.The temperature stability and sensitivity of the system were tested by experiments, which show that the maximum relative error of the vibration acceleration measurement is 1.65% under the temperature range of 25℃ and the sensitivity of vibration measurement is 107.70 mV/g.

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    DISPERSION,GROUP VELOCITY AND GROUP REFRACTIVE INDEX
    Li Hui, Xie Shusen, Lu Zukang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1999, 28 (12): 1075-1079,1090.  
    Abstract628)      PDF (1415KB)(4678)       Save
    In this paper,it is pointed out that the significance of dispersion in often neglected in the measurement of refractive index by interference Emphasis is placed on an additional concept of group refractive index which is defined as the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to group velocity in medium Intensive analyses show that the physical meanings of group refractive index include both refractive index and its dispersive property Therefore,it is easy to learn why many results of group refractive indices by interferential method are mistaken to be real refractive indices To differentiate refractive index from group one is not only to correct errors in refractive index measurement but also to highlight the temporal characteristic of dispersion phenomenon in the light transport in medium To this end,a transforming relation between the group refractive index and the refractive index is presented and discussed in detail Some examples of typical solid,liquid and gas are also given.
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    Scheme of Quantum Dialogue Based on Four-particle Omega State and Security of Intercept-resend Attack
    YANG You-feng, YE Zhi-qing
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2013, 42 (10): 1256-1260.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20134210.1256
    Abstract602)      PDF (457KB)(2740)       Save

    A scheme of quantum dialogue was proposed based on four-particle omega state. First, Bob, a communication party, prepared a four-particle omega state, encoded classical secret information by performing an approprite unitary transformation on two particles of the omega state and sent them to Alice. Then, Alice also performed an approprite unitary transformation on the two particles to encode secret information and sent back to Bob. Finally, Bob made joint measurement to final omega state, and announced the results. Alice and Bob, two parties of communication, could decode classical information the opposite one transfers, according to the announced measurement results and itself unitary operator, making the bidirectional communication come true. The result shows that the communication scheme only transfers two particles and makes unitary operations twice, and two communication parties get the opposite four-bit classcical information. It realizes both two-way communication of classical information with quantum channel and dense encoding to improve the communication capacity. The Eve's intercept-resend attack can be found in time by inserting decoy photons in the system to raise the security of communication system.

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    Response and Electrical Characteristics of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP Avalanche Photodiode
    YUAN Zheng-bing, XIAO Qing-quan, YANG Wen-xian, XIAO Meng, WU Yuan-yuan, TAN Ming, DAI Pan, LI Xue-fei, XIE Quan, LU Shu-long
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2018, 47 (3): 304002-0304002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20184703.0304002
    Abstract387)      PDF (5664KB)(1532)       Save

    In0.53Ga0.47As/InP Avalanche Photodiode (APD) with low dark current, wide-range response is prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and open-tube zinc diffusion method. The dark current is less than 10 nA at 0.95Vb (Vb is the avalanche breakdown voltage), and the capacitance density is as low as 1.43×10-8 F/cm2 when the bias voltage is -5 V. The response range of APD is 50 nW~20 mW and the responsibility is up to 1.13 A/W under 1 310 nm infrared laser at 30 V reverse bias voltage. The breakdown voltage and punch-through voltage are investigated by changing concentration of the charge layer and thickness of the multiplication layer. The result shows that the punch-through voltage increases linearly, conversely, the breakdown voltage decreases linearly with increasing concentration of the charge layer. Further, the punch-through voltage increases linearly and breakdown voltage also increases with increasing thickness of the multiplication layer, while the surface density of charge layer is 4.8×1012 cm-2. Through optimizing SAGCM-APD device structure, the APD device achieves a 25 V punch-through voltage and a 57 V breakdown voltage, with low dark current, and wide-range response characteristics.

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    THE EFFECT AND APPLICATION ON PLASMA DISPERSION OF Si
    Li Guozheng, Liu Yuliang, Liu Enke
    Acta Photonica Sinica    1996, 25 (5): 413-416.  
    Abstract855)      PDF (2353KB)(1732)       Save
    The enect on plasma dispersion of Sihas been introduced in this paper.TheJectroopticalmodulator and 2 ? 2 electrooptical switch of Si has been made by using this effect and its result issatisfactory.
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    PERFORMANCE OF A SILICON AVALANCHE DIODE AS A SINGLE PHOTON DETECTOR
    Liang Chuang, Liao Jing, Liang Bing, Wu Lingan
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2000, 29 (12): 1142-1147.  
    Abstract1082)      PDF (379KB)(4181)       Save
    Silicon avalanche photodiodes operating in the Geiger mode are capable of detecting single photon in the near infrared regime.It is designed and tested two types of quenching circuit,with a dead time of about 1μs in the passive quenching mode and 60~80ns in the active quenching mode.The output pulse width is about 20ns.The performance of the detector under various operating temperatures has been investigated down to liquid nitrogen temperatures,and a new observation is reported.
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    THE REFRACTIVE INDEX MEASUREMENT OF HIGH REFRACTIVE INDEX GLASS BEADS
    Huang Fuquan, Lu Shanying, Wang Shaomin
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2001, 30 (6): 753-756.  
    Abstract913)      PDF (368KB)(1992)       Save
    A new method for measuring the refractive index of glass beads is presented.Using a laser beam incidence fulfills the condition of minimum deviation and through one or more times inner reflection,can be received the primary or higher order rainbows which relate to the refractive index of the glass beads.The method is particularly adapted to measure the refractive index within 1.7~2.4 of glass beads,and the features of this method are convenient,quick and safe.Through analyzed and compared with different experiment results,the measuring accuracy is better than 1%.
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    Fluorometic Determination of Ethanol Solution
    Lan Xiufeng, Liu Ying, Liu Jian′gang, Shen Zhonghua, Lu Jian, Ni Xiaowu
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2003, 32 (11): 1371-1374.  
    Abstract333)      PDF (877KB)(1784)       Save
    The visible fluorescence spectra from ethanol-water solution and its characteristics are investigated in experiment and theory. The experimental results indicate that spectral profile of ethanol has two prominent fluorescence regions from 278 nm to 493 nm and from 534 nm to 665 nm when excited by ultraviolet (UV) light (λmax =253.7 nm). The fluorescence spectra change as the concentration of solution alters. However, the change rules of solution with high concentration are different from those with low concentration. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms of fluorescence emission of ethanol-water solution induced by UV-light are analyzed based on the theory of molecule orbital structure. It is considered that this fluorescence comes from the transition from nonbonding electrons namely n electrons in the hetero atom group (C-OH) to the antibonding orbital σ*. Investigation on the fluorescence spectra and its characteristics will contribute to study of other organic macromolecule fluorescence spectra when alcohol serves as solvent.
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    Cited: Baidu(31)
    Ultra-sensitive Bio-sensor Based on Trapped Mode All-dielectric Metasurface Coating with Graphene Layer
    DENG Xue-song, FANG Ming, REN Xin-gang, HUANG Zhi-xiang, WU Xian-liang
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2019, 48 (12): 1248005-1248005.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20194812.1248005
    Abstract385)   HTML0)    PDF (6399KB)(413)       Save
    It has proposed an all-dielectric metasurface consisting of subwavelength particles, which supports "trapped" mode after the introduction of properly symmetry-breaking in the silicon meta-atoms. Combining the monolayer graphene with all-dielectric metasurface that enables to detect nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. it has been found that the proposed metasurface is ultra-sensitive to the surrounding environment, its sensitivity in sensing detection can be up to 173 nm/RIU, with the corresponding quality factor of 14 416 RIU-1, which exhibits excellent biosensing performance by comparing the resonant state in the transmission spectrum. It indicates all-dielectric metasurfaces could be a promising way and platform to realize ultra-sensitive bio-sensors.
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    USING χ VECTOR EXPRESS POLARIZED LIGHT AND APPLICATION
    Kong Weijin, Li Guohua
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2002, 31 (11): 1405-1408.  
    Abstract874)      PDF (1495KB)(2635)       Save
    χ vector is induced from the definition of Jones vector.By using χ vector,a new express of polarized light in two-dimension complex plane is given.Each point in this complex plane express a polarized stte.At last several conclusions connecting with the eigenstate of Jones matrix are proved.The result shows that each optical sysetm has two eigenstats,the eigenstats of the rotatory media are left and right rotatory circle polarized light,the polarizer′s are two normal line polarized lights,birefringent media′s are two line polarized lights that are parallel to the fast and slow axis respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    The influence of composition of magneto-optical glasses on its verdet constant
    Acta Photonica Sinica   
    Abstract1475)      PDF (332KB)(2815)       Save
    Several glasses with different compositions were synthesized on the basis of silicate system by high temperature fusing method and the verdet constant were measured on the room temperature .The additive mean which can calculate the properties of glasses has been used to research nine glasses with different compositions ,and we obtained magnetic-optical properties of nine oxides compositions. The results shows that those parameters we obtained could caculate the verdet constant of silicate glasses.
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    Acta Photonica Sinica    1995, 24 (1): 91-95.  
    Abstract412)      PDF (2254KB)(3547)       Save
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    DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (DOAS) TECHNIQUE APPLIED TO MONITOR SULFUR DIOXIDE IN FLUE GAS
    Xie Pinhua, Liu Wenqing, Zheng Zhaohui, Wei Qingnong, Wang Yaping, Liu Jianguo
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2000, 29 (3): 271-276.  
    Abstract573)      PDF (454KB)(1857)       Save
    Algorithms of concentration retrieved from atmospheric absorption spectra of DOAS technique are applied to monitor sulfur dioxide in flue gas in this paper.Because of SO2 molecules strong absorption around wavelength 300nm,the absorption spectra were measured,from which the concentration of SO2 molecules are evaluated by using algorithms of DOAS.This analysis procedure make an in-site,real-time measurement to be possible without the influences of gas dust,water vapor and other molecules in the flue gas.Several concentration SO2 samples were measured and evaluated in laboratory.
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    STRUCTURE OF BASIC PERIOD OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC CRYSTAL AND THE CHARACTERS OF FORBIDDEN BANDS
    Chen Weizong, Shen Ying, Hu Manli, Pu Tao, Liu Jun
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2001, 30 (12): 1453-1456.  
    Abstract699)      PDF (821KB)(1808)       Save
    The propagation properties of light radiation in one-dimensional photonic crystal were studied by characteristic matrix method of optical conductance.The effect of the structure of basic period of one-dimensional photonic crystal on characters of forbidden bands has been analyzed.The application of these properties was pointed out.
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    Progress and Applications of High-resolution and Super-resolution Optical Imaging in Space and Biology
    YAO Bao-li, LEI Ming, XUE Bin, GAO Peng, YAN Shao-hui, ZHAO Hui, ZHAO Wei, YANG Jian-feng, FAN Xue-wu, QIU Yue-hong, GAO Wei, ZHAO Bao-chang, LI Ying-cai
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2011, 40 (11): 1607-1618.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20114011.1607
    Abstract1306)      PDF (4706KB)(4066)       Save

    Large to observe the boundless expanse of universe with astronomical optical telescopes, small to detect the infinitesimal nano-world with optical microscopes, optical imaging technology plays a very important role for human beings in the exploration and discovery of the mysteries of the unknown world. To see farther, to see more details and to see more clearly are people's constantly pursuing goal. The traditional optics theory has proved that all classical optical systems are diffraction-limited, i.e., the physical limit of the spatial resolution of optical systems is determined by the light wavelength and the relative aperture (or numerical aperture) of the system. Can this diffraction-limited barrier be broken through? Is it possible to continue to improve the imaging resolution of optical systems? Around this issue, this paper reviews the recent progress of a variety of high-resolution and super-resolution optical imaging techniques, and their developments in the fields of space exploration and biological applications.

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    Stable Bias Control Technique for Any-point Locking in Mach-Zehnder Modulator
    HAO Chong-zheng, LI Hong-zuo, SUN Quan, YANG Yue, WANG Da-shuai
    Acta Photonica Sinica    2017, 46 (10): 1023002-1023002.   DOI: 10.3788/gzxb20174610.1023002
    Abstract663)      PDF (5962KB)(1057)       Save

    A control algorithm to achieve working bias stability for Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) is proposed. Its utilize first-order and cotangent value of Average Optical Power (AOP) with FPGA technique. Firstly, we describe the reason for stabilizing the MZM at the common point. Then, control theories for keeping the bias point at different working point are studied by numerical simulation. At last, arbitrary working point control system is built. Experiment results indicate that, the fluctuation of output average optical power is less than ±5% (within one hour) under the condition of 5 dBm laser output power (1 550 nm), 4.2 V half-wave voltage, 3 dB insertion loss and 1Gbps/1Mbps speed. The system has the ability to maintain the bias at any point in the optical power curve and improved the reliability of MZM in optical communication.

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    Acta Photonica Sinica    1983, 12 (1): 47-56.  
    Abstract749)      PDF (2636KB)(2403)       Save
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